Because of the damage that maritime piracy inflicts on international trade and general safety, it has long been treated as a universal crime whose perpetrators were subject to punishment by any country that caught them. Piracy remains a serious threat to the international community in modern times, especially in Southeast Asia. Roughly 45% of the world’s commercial shipping passes through Southeast Asia, so the maritime attacks in this region cause billions of dollars in economic loss each year. These attacks have attracted additional attention due to the fact that they are now being committed by terrorists as well as traditional maritime bandits. This Note discusses the basis for punishing these attacks under international law, and considers whether the definition of piracy under international law can encompass these attacks.