The phenomenon of statelessness is a grave and growing problem. Millions of stateless individuals are among the least visible but most vulnerable populations in the world. They are not recognized as citizens by any government and thus are forced to function at the edges of society. Without citizenship, people often have no effective legal protection, no ability to vote, and limited access to education, employment, health care, marriage and birth registration. This Note examines the root causes and overall impact of statelessness on a global scale. It also takes a closer look at the history and impact of the systematic, discriminatory denial of citizenship for Dominicans of Haitian descent in the Dominican Republic in light of the 2005 Inter-American Court of Human Rights landmark decision against the Dominican Republic affirming nationality as a human right.