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Few estates are subject to the estate tax, which accounts for only a small portion of federal revenues. Even so, those whose estates may be subject to the tax tend to have access to high-quality advice and to engage in long-term tax planning. Because of this, the presence of the estate tax has a broad impact on the economic activity of those who are likely to be subject to the tax (as well as those who stand to benefit from those estates). This Article explores some of the choices that those who are affected by the estate tax may face, and contemplates what might happen were the estate tax to change or be repealed.