Document Type

Symposium Article


While protection of endangered species in the United States is mandated for listed species under the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act, both require ancillary efforts to ensure their intents are enforced. Science, negotiation, litigation, and lobbying for political solutions are all tools that can be brought to bear to ensure compliance with protective laws. However, there is a right and wrong time for the use of each of these tools. This paper provides a short discussion of the available tools, the likelihood of success or failure of each depending on when and how they are used, and it makes the case for a multi-faceted approach to protection of endangered species, using critically endangered right whales as a case study.