Prosecutions of former heads of state are becoming increasingly common. In 1990, the United States arrested and convicted General Manuel Noriega, the Panamanian leader, on drug charges. United States v. Noriega set a powerful precedent, rejecting traditional immunity and jurisdiction defenses. In recent years, domestic and international tribunals alike have similarly exercised jurisdiction over foreign leaders, such as Augosto Pinochet and Slobodan Milosevic. While many in the international community praise these recent developments, others warn of the erosion of national sovereignty and justice without limits.
Adam I. Hasson,
Extraterritorial Jurisdiction and Sovereign Immunity on Trial: Noriega, Pinochet, and Milosevic – Trends in Political Accountability and Transnational Criminal Law,
B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev.