The article starts out from a concise reconstruction of the republican and the democratic ideals in the context of the modern expansion on emancipatory ideals and programs so as to produce an understanding of the principle of equality in light of them. It then seeks to develop the rudiments of a constitutional theory of equality consistent with the emancipatory ideals from which it derives its most robust meaning. In its last segment the article examines the question of "affirmative action" in the access to higher education within the scope of the proposed basis for a theory of equality.
Paulo D. Barrozo. "The Idea of Equality and Affirmative Actions." Lua Nova 63, (2004): 103-141.